Humour in 20th Century American Postmodernist Texts – Introduction to my Bachelor’s Dissertation2013

‘In Comic Faith, Robert Polhemus argues that comedic literature of the nineteenth century offered a way of finding meaning and structure in the absence of beliefs and institutions that once provided purpose to individual lives and suggests that it performs, “in secular and hypothetical fashion, many of the conventional religious functions of the old ‘divine comedy’ (4). Whereas institutional religion offered immortality in the promise of an afterlife, the comic sense allows for the belief that the world is “both funny and potentially good” and implies the assumption “that the basis for believing in the value of life can be found in the fact of comic expression itself” (3). Equating the will to laugh with an act of faith is provocative, but what is interesting is that Polhemus’s own argument seems to break down as he moves out of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. He wants to find progress and hope for the future in the human ability to laugh; “People need to believe that the limits and terrors of reality can be changed, that the future can be different and better, that wonderful things can happen; if religious institutions cannot do these things, something else must” (269). However, the later literature he examines subverts his premise that in comedy there is “the promise of some form of enduring life in which we have a part” (19), and he struggles to find hope in the humour of Carroll and Thackery. He finds that the successful integration of the individual into society becomes increasingly difficult, if not impossible, and that there are only momentary triumphs through laughter. Polhemus’s theory begins to break down seemingly as a consequence of his parameters of religion. 

Polhemus defines religion along with comedy as something that is able to allow people to reconcile themselves with their harsh fates as well as being capable of smoothing over social enmity. It also has the ability to organize and discipline the energies and emotions of people, to make people feel as though they are part of a group, to allow people to identify with righteousness and let loose indignation and hostility in good conscience as well as lift them out of themselves. Yet as Polhemus asserts, comedy evolves and “what people laugh at and why shows the direction of their lives and the course of their world” (5). If this is the case, the tendency towards the darkly humorous in twentieth century literature, particularly of the absurd and social satire, indicate a refocusing of people’s needs from the social whole onto the individual.

Humour theory has often middled in literature studies due to a philosophical difficulty, one that Russell addresses (99-100). He asserts that people laugh at much the same kind of things now as they did in Ancient Greece and Rome, comparing modern jokes about cuckolds to some similar in Homer, and then furthering his thesis with similar jokes found in French fabliaux. Yet his question remains: do meaning and value derive from self-contained systems of cultures, each of which is the only possible source of judgment about such meanings and values? Or is there some over-arching logic to history- for instance, ‘progress’ or ‘human nature’- which makes judgment across the boundaries of cultures possible? There has been a tendency, in the historical questioning of humour, to define comedy in terms of one’s own time, and relativise. This has meant that most philosophical musings on comedy has asked questions of what we laugh at, rather than why. 

Sigmund Freud’s theory remains one of the most useful examinations of the comic because it was concerned with the process of humour and not a definition of it. This has allowed critics over the past century the ability to analyse the ways in which literary characters, authors and readers act in relation to humour as a whole, rather than in individual situations. For Freud, the fundamental idea of jokes represents a ‘saving in expenditure’. We joke to either ‘avoid the effort of critical discriminatory thought’ or ‘satisfy aggressive instincts’ (228), that is, an economy of effort is the explanation of the pleasure of a joke; play is not detachment and a pure sense of freedom but one of the most basic characteristics of the unconscious. There is a division of comedy into three methods of operation: jokes, humour and the comic, the difference in each being the manner of saving. For Freud, our pleasure in jokes arises from savings of expenditure upon inhibition; in humour from savings of expenditure upon feeling and our pleasure of the comic arises from savings of expenditure upon ideation.”’

Why Attend the Discrimination Law Conference? – Marketing Email 2015

Discrimination continues to be the most dynamic part of employment law. Despite the fall-off in employment tribunal claims, each month brings new developments of practical importance for policies and procedures. No one who advises on employment law or equal opportunities can afford not to keep abreast of these vital changes and their implications for compliance.
Here are a few of the particular key recent or upcoming developments our outstanding speakers will be exploring:
-The Shared Parental Leave Regulations 2014 came into force heralding a radical shake up of the law.
– The judicial review challenge to employment tribunal fees was unsuccessful in the Court of Appeal, but fees are now under UK Government review and the Scottish Government is pledged to abolish them.
– The Court of Justice of the European Union held that associative indirect discrimination claims can be brought by those suffering “collateral damage” from discrimination against others.
– The Government announced proposals for mandatory reporting of information on the gender pay gap.
– The Court of Appeal will be considering whether employers need to disregard absence triggers in their attendance policy as a reasonable adjustment.’’

Blog article written for

Our features this month include the thoughts of an employment judge on the role of tribunals in discrimination cases, and a discussion by Rachel Crasnow QC of some of the policy issues arising from the shared parental leave provisions. Our case studies cover mental health, race and LGBT issues.

Women in the film industry

The head of research at the European Women’s Audiovisual Network (EWA) looks at the barriers to women directors, in particular the allocation of funds, pointing out that an “astonishing” 84% of public funds went to male directors, despite the fact that women comprise 44% of graduates from fi lm schools. She argues that urgent action is needed, including targets backed by incentives. The EWA recommends that a 40% share of public funding goes to women.

Justice in discrimination claims

Employment Judge James Tayler argues that employment tribunals have a vital role to play in eliminating discrimination, but that there are also duties on parties and representatives to ensure that cases are dealt with proportionately. He identifies that lengthy and costly hearings are a problem, and recognises the difficulty in keeping claims focused.

However, he finds it unacceptable to simply bewail the fact that it is impossible to prevent discrimination claims losing focus. He reminds parties and representatives of their duty to deal with cases in ways that “are proportionate to the complexity and importance of the issues, avoiding delay and saving expense”. He recognises the role of the tribunal too, particularly in dealing with the evidence, and criticises the conflation that has developed between evidence needed to draw inferences and the burden of proof.

Kent Fire and Rescue Service: mental health

The fire service is traditionally male-dominated and fire-fighters are expected to “prove themselves” in action. Mental ill health has to some extent been regarded as a weakness, and Kent Fire and Rescue Service (KFRS) found a high level of self-stigmatisation. However, by raising awareness of mental health issues, and taking a holistic approach to physical and mental wellbeing, KFRS has changed how mental ill-health is regarded. Many employees have committed to studying for a level 2 certificate in awareness of mental health problems, and increasing numbers of staff have participated in dementia awareness training and have become “Dementia friends”. Staff have also become more willing to disclose mental health problems of their own and within their family.

Warwickshire and West Mercia Police: increasing BAME representation

Against a background of Government publication of “diversity profiles” of police forces in England and Wales, and a finding that no force has ethnic minority representation proportionate to it population, Warwickshire and West Mercia Police forces have successfully put in place initiatives to increase recruitment of BAME police officers and staff. Although not yet proportionate to its population, the forces – which have formed a Strategic Alliance to deliver police services jointly in their areas – have increased the percentage rate.

Accenture: ‘mobilising’ its straight allies

In Stonewall’s Workplace Index survey 2016, some 94% of Accenture’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender employees agreed that the culture at Accenture is inclusive of LGBT people. This is to some degree down to Accenture’s renewed emphasis on the role of straight allies at the workplace. It started its straight allies programme in 2012, but in 2015 it launched “mobilised allies”. New terms of reference were published for the ally role. “Mobilised allies” are expected to be a visible, vocalised opponent of prejudice and discrimination and be able to provide a safe and non-judgmental point of contact for LGBT employees who may want support. The number of straight allies increased from 700 to 2,000 from June 2015 to February this year.

Discrimination case law

We report 12 discrimination cases this month, including Peninsula Business Services Ltd v Donaldson, which concerned a salary-sacrifice childcare voucher scheme. The EAT held that this amounted to “remuneration” and therefore refusal to continue the scheme during maternity leave was held not to be discrimination.

Other issues covered include guidance on the correct approach to indirect discrimination, and the duty on employment tribunals to make reasonable adjustments.

Diary: Menopause and disability

In his diary this month, Michael Rubenstein leads with a discussion of the effect of the menopause on some women at work, and explains how changes to the way we understand disability discrimination could provide legal protection for women who are not reasonably supported during the menopause.

He stresses that the menopause is not in itself a disability but part of the natural aging process, but also that it is clear that for some women the effect of the menopause can “hinder their full and effective participation at work”, a condition that can last for four to eight years. If such symptoms can be brought within the definition of disability under the Equality Act, employers will be under a duty to make reasonable adjustments.

This content and more is available to subscribers to Equal Opportunities Review (EOR) in print and online at  For more information or to subscribe, contact [email protected].

3 Reasons to Visit and Study In The Netherlands – Article2016

We all know how difficult it can be moving away from home. The temptation for so many is to move somewhere new and refreshing but still not too far from the safety net of friends and family1. Of course we understand the temptation, but think about what you will be missing out on! Much like a young, ambitious and forward thinking footballer, you too could be jetting off to the continent for new sights, sounds and experiences. 

Here are just a few reasons to consider the Netherlands before you potentially touch down in Schiphol!

  1. It’s cheap!

The living standard is peanuts compared to Britain or the US. Rent in Amsterdam is around 40% cheaper than London, on average, and this trend continues nationwide2

There is less of a burden after university also. Tuition fees are generally £1500 compared to Britain’s £9000 (!) per year. In combination with the several scholarships and grants available, including Erasmus, (which can often result in an absence of tuition fees3) you will have far more spare cash to spend on yourself or for visiting local delights.

Indeed, if you are an EU student and work 32 hours per week, you will also have access to a free travel pass for the whole country4. Travelling through the rolling fields of Gelderland or relaxing on the beaches of Zeeland will be a welcome and inspiring break from your studies.

  1. It’s incredibly vibrant and diverse!

The Netherlands is renowned for being one the most multicultural countries on the planet. In 2015, students arrived there from 157 different countries, including China, Italy, Spain and the US5

The Dutch education system emphasizes teamwork, meaning there has to be constant adaptation and understanding with students from all over the world. Employers really value these skills and you will too once you enter the workspace.

  1. English is a primary language

The Netherlands offers so much and yet is still so familiar to those from the UK; it feels just like a home away from home. It is particularly attractive to British students as so many courses are taught in English, with English being a popular second language among locals as well. 

When sat in a warm cozy coffee shop or jazz bar after a breezy, canal-side cycle down a cobbled street, with book and coffee resting beside you, you will experience an odd feeling of comfort. This isn’t your home, no, but you realize it really could be.

Indeed, if you love the Netherlands, and decide to continue there, a multitude of jobs will be available for advanced English speakers, including roles in aviation, the sciences and politics.

Of course, these few reasons barely scratch the surface of what studying in the Netherlands has to offer. Its beautiful vistas, innumerable waterways and fantastically kind people are just a few more. Their beer is also amazing, by the way. One article will not convince you to make such a bold move. But consider the Netherlands as a place to study, grow and develop in these key years. It will welcome you whatever you decide to do.

You Can Earn Scholarships Playing Video Games? – Article 2018

Colleges and universities across the globe, though especially those in the USA and South Korea, are increasingly offering opportunities for gamers to ease the transition from the amateur to professional scene.

Organised video game competition has existed for about as long as video games have; competition being inherent in video games. But while amateur online and offline events have existed since the very beginning, professional video gaming, commonly referred to as eSports, have steadily been gathering popularity since the late 2000s, with spectatorship and therefore advertising and consequently funding further increasing the scope and reach of the burgeoning movement.

Traditional Sporting Scholarships

Many universities and colleges offer scholarships and grants to students practicing more traditional sports, as you may already be aware. Football, basketball, baseball, American football, gymnastics, track and field, hockey, tennis, golf and more… If you are an accomplished athlete, there are many scholarships available for you. Some will even offer full ride scholarships for athletic achievement, which includes not only tuition and fees, but also books, room and board, supplies and sometimes even living expenses. They may also even cover study abroad costs, like flights and other fees.

eSports, as they are still in their relative infancy, are yet to receive the same recognition.

While there have been movements to rectify this, there is, somewhat understandably, resistance in including eSports within the realm of traditional sports. Video games, it has been said, lack the physicality and outdoor nature of athletics. 

Yet they require exceptional hand-eye co-ordination, careful planning, precise timing and skilful execution. And while they lack the physicality of football or basketball, video games aren’t entirely removed from physical qualities- nimbleness of the hands and forearm strength can often be required.

The Legitimization of eSports

One potential method seen as capable of legitimizing eSports is via the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee in October 2017 acknowledged the growing popularity of eSports, concluding that competitive video gaming can be considered a sporting activity as the players will train and prepare with an intensity comparable to athletes in traditional sports. 

There still remain barriers to eSports inclusion within the Olympics though, as the games included would have to align with Olympic values, rules and regulations. By which, there can be no violence within the games and that there is a lack of global sanctioning body for eSports. It seems likely that if the Olympics were to include video games (there have been suggestions of including them in the Tokyo 2020 and Paris 2024 Summer Olympics) the games included would need to be centred around traditional sports simulations, such as FIFA, or the NBA 2K series.

These Olympic developments have been progressing alongside other notable cultural events, legitimizing professional video gaming. In 2013, Canadian League of Legends player Danny ‘Shiphtur’ Le became the first pro gamer to receive an American P-1A visa, a category designated for Internationally Recognized Athletes. 

In 2014, Turkey’s Ministry of Youth and Sports started issuing eSports player licenses to those certified as professionals.

In 2016, the French government started working on a project to regulate and recognize eSports. The Games and Amusements Board of the Philippines started issuing athletic licenses to Filipino eSports players who are vouched by a professional eSports team in July 2017.

Meanwhile, several eSports events have been run alongside traditional sporting competition. The Asian Indoor Games now includes a video game medal-winning event, as well as the Asian Games, the top-level Asian multi-sport competition. Events for StarCraft II and Steep were held prior to the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang.

Modern eSports Leagues

The recently developed professional league for Overwatch, the Overwatch League, regularly pulls in over 150,000 live viewers, with a peak of over 350,000 live viewers. Players are guaranteed a base salary of at least USD $50,000 per year, healthcare, housing and retirement savings plans. Some star players, such as Jay ‘Sinatraa’ Won and Brandon ‘Seagull’ Larned earn over USD $150,000 per year.

Dota 2 players, such as Kuro ‘KuroKy’ Takhasomi and Amer ‘Miracle-‘ Al-Barkawi have each personally won more than USD $3,000,000 in prize money alone. That doesn’t include advertising revenue or other personal income streams, like wages, coaching, investments, or money earned streaming, on sites such as Twitch.

Recent video game revelation Fortnite is also developing its own eSports competition, with the prize pool starting at USD $100 million. To put that into perspective, last year’s Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) Tour, the primary professional golf tour, had a prize pool of $321 million. The PGA Tour has existed for 50 years. Fortnite’s competition is yet to begin. 

eSports Scholarships

As eSports continue to be legitimized, universities and colleges are trying to position themselves ahead of the curve and become the go-to destinations for prospective professional video gamers. 

One such institution is Harrisburg University located in Pennsylvania, United States. Harrisburg has recently awarded 16 full-ride scholarships, after a lengthy recruitment process and months of try-outs for incoming students who excel in Hearthstone, League of Legends, and Overwatch.

Robert Morris University was the first college in the U.S. to offer video gaming scholarships, where students can earn up to USD $19,000 a year. Robert Morris University eSports athletes also don team uniforms and post-game meals, just like any other collegiate sports team.

Ashland University’s eSports program, currently based on League of Legends and Overwatch that they will be extending to Fortnite, offers students up to USD $4,000 in scholarships. 

Harrisburg, Robert Morris and Ashland are all members of the National Association of Collegiate Esports (NACE), an association that aims to develop college-level eSports in the USA. There are currently 63 institutions that make up NACE.

Needless to say, eSports are becoming big business and universities are desperate to be at the front of that queue. Not only will successful video gamers promote their own institutions, the prestige associated with success will likely make these institutions more renowned going forward. They are, in a sense, trying to get ahead of the curve by offering these opportunities for potential eSports superstars.

Here is a list of eSports scholarships available to those studying in the United States of America.

And it’s not only institutions in the US that are offering these scholarships. eSports is perhaps most popular in South Korea, where it has been supported by the government since 2000. This has led to South Korean success in many eSports tournaments, though the USA, China, Japan and many countries in Europe, like Sweden, France and the United Kingdom are steadily catching up.

Chung-Ang University, a top ten South Korean university is just one of many South Korean institutions that considers eSports alongside traditional sports and so offers scholarships as valuable as those offered for football and baseball.

In addition, eSports has begun to be added to certain high school curriculums in South Korea, Sweden and Finland. As of August 2016, the Norwegian Garnes Vidaregåande Skule in Bergen offers eSports as a sport in its program. Meanwhile, the first students of Sweden’s new eSports curriculum enrolled at Arlanda Gymnasiet school in Märsta in 2015.

Studying Video Games

Traditional sporting scholarships will sometimes require the student to study a subject in particular, Sports Science, for example, or a degree Coaching that particular sport. Other times, scholars are free to study what they will, with the added caveat of making time for their preferred sport.

When it comes to eSports, things are similar. Certain scholarships will be supplementary, as in they require a full-time education, with video games forming something more extracurricular. Some though are more closely related to video game degrees and courses, like Game Design, Computer Technology or similarly computer and video game based courses.

The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), located in New York, USA, has launched one of the most respected Game Design and Development programs in the US. RIT has caught on to the momentum generated by gamers and the school’s ‘Masters of Science in Game Design and Development’ departs from traditional curricula, affecting how Game Design is taught and understood across the United States. The program offers scholarships to academically talented individuals that are fluent in game design.

The University of Advancing Technology, situated in Arizona, USA, offers the following scholarships:

  • Thinking Scholarships: UAT Thinking Scholarships recognise and honour students whose original works and ideas aid the University’s efforts to elevate critical thinking.
  • Mission-Driven Scholarships: Mission-Driven Scholarships help UAT students uphold and embody the tech-driven mission of the University.
  • Financial Need Scholarships: Financial Need Scholarships are designed to alleviate the financial constraints of attending college.

Many shorter programs are also offered by institutions, most of which are located in the United States. 

Emagination Game Design exists to give high school gamers the chance to take part in an intensive summer game design educational program. Youth designers even get the chance to show off their creations to professional game developers. College bound game designers and developers benefit from Emagination’s Rick Goodman Scholarship Program. Talented and motivated students pursuing game design credentials earn tuition scholarships from the Goodman Program.

The summer seminar program on video game design hosted by University of Southern California (USC) gives game designers an opportunity to access the latest developments within the video game industry. Students compete for USC Interactive Entertainment Summer Camp Scholarships by writing essays detailing their interests and aptitudes in game design and development. 

Female Representation Within eSports

Scholarships are of course not only offered for those with exceptional skill or those deserving of monetary assistance. Some scholarships are also available to aid with representation within the industry, which in video games tends towards the representation of women.

Video games are typically associated with young men. Yet characteristics such as age, education and income actually don’t affect gamers very much. Both in the playing and the developing of video games, age ranges from teenage to old age, from little/no education to doctorates and from those earning virtually nothing to multimillionaires. 

That is not that case when it comes to gender representation in video games.

While studies have found that about 48% of video gamers are women, only 6% identify as “gamers” (in contrast to 15% of men). This contrast becomes even more stark both within video game development and eSports.

Women currently only constitute 22% of the video game industry as developers, designers, artists, programmers and so on. There are few concrete statistics for female representation in eSports, though the estimate is typically around 10% female to 90% male. For viewers of eSports, even this may seem like an exaggeration. Of the 129 players in the Overwatch League, there is one female player, Seyeon ‘Geguri’ Kim. This means the Overwatch League is only made up of 0.78% female players.

Clearly, changes have to be made to how eSports is viewed and received by women of all ages and so scholarships are often made especially available to women.

Southern Methodist University – Guildhall (SMU) launched a scholarship program benefiting women enrolled in game design programs. The Game Industry Scholarship for Women provides educational funding for technology-oriented female college students. Applicants demonstrate a talent for game design and increase their chances of winning by submitting essays articulating the contributions they hope to make to the gaming industry. Scholarships are valued up to the total outstanding tuition balance owed, after other financial aid has been applied.

Stephens College, Missouri, USA, is a member of the National Association of Collegiate eSports (NACE), and it is also the first varsity collegiate all women’s eSports team that also offers scholarships. 

eSports Are the Future

Just as in traditional sports, the chances of making it to the top of professional video gaming is slim. Nevertheless, the opportunities for a career in video games continue to expand, whether that be behind the scenes (in one of the many roles available, whether they be artistic, mathematical, scientific or business-minded) or streaming video games live on platforms such as Twitch and YouTube Gaming, or even editing videos of oneself playing then uploading them to YouTube, Vimeo or other video site.

Video games are no longer something just for teenagers in their basements- it is a multibillion dollar industry that may, perhaps even sooner than we imagine, eclipse traditional sporting events. It would make sense then, for potential students to consider it as a valuable option for a future career. And if you are able to get a scholarship to help you along the way? Then all the better.

How Can You Avoid Choosing the Wrong University Course? – Video Script2019

How Can You Avoid Choosing the Wrong University Course?

{Visual of person sat at work desk, looking troubled}

Some people spend their whole lives looking for a course in life and never find it.

{Visual of person juggling on the street- imply homelessness e.g. dirty hat, unkempt beard, ragged clothes}

Others may find the thing they love, but never figure out how to get paid for it.

To avoid making these mistakes, you must ask yourself these four questions:

  • What are you good at? 
  • What does the world need?
  • What can you be paid for?
  • And what do you love doing?

If you find a single answer to all of these questions, you will have found your ikigai, a Japanese term, which translates to: your reason for being, your place in the world.

Of course, these aren’t straightforward questions. 

What if you love drawing, but don’t think you’re good enough yet to earn a job doing it?

You know can get a good wage by becoming a doctor — what teacher will inspire you to love it?

You can begin to answer them by considering where in the world the perfect course for you lies.
Look inside yourself, speak with friends, speak with family and consider your options online or in person, at an international university fair and ease the journey of finding your ikigai.

Why You Should Start Saving for Retirement Today – Article2020

Motivations for starting your pension are abundant. We have picked out three of the best.

It’s the easiest thing in the world to put off doing something.

According to research from pension group Royal London, you will need a retirement income of £17,500 a year to live in comfort. That requires £260,000 in your final pension pot. Unfortunately this means that the longer your pension goes untended to, the more difficult it will become to achieve this target.

Starting your pension as soon as today is not a matter of mere urgency, it is imperative.

Yet it is not all doom and gloom. The blessing (and curse) of a pension is that there remains time for you to set one up – what better time like the present? 

Starting Now Means Not Having to Start Tomorrow

Setting up your pension now means not having to do it tomorrow. Really, is there any better reason than that?

What’s more is that by beginning immediately, your pension starts to work for you sooner. Interest can begin to accumulate and could even allow for an earlier retirement.

Imagine walking towards an insurmountable hill. The closer you get to its base, the smaller it seems. Upon climbing it, you realise that it is no mountain, just a hillock. You will have conquered it before you even realise. Also this hillock somehow makes you money (this analogy may need work).

Starting now may appear daunting, but in most cases it is far easier than it seems. Sometimes, it is only as difficult as filling in a few details.

You Can More Easily Care for Your Children (and Grandchildren)

The stakes are high when it comes to retirement. But having a reliable pension is not only for the person sitting (or standing) reading this, but for that person years from now, perhaps with children, or with grandchildren. 

By securing your future as soon as possible, you will have more leeway in adapting to these big life changes.

Further, when it does come time to retire, you will probably be looking forward to spending more time with your family. But, you won’t want to have to spend time with them. Being forced to live with your children because you cannot afford to live independently is not pleasant to imagine, but it also makes starting your pension now all the more important.

It Becomes Easier to Picture Yourself Sitting on That Cruise

Yes, a successful retirement plan will allow for a far more comfortable retirement in which you can take care of yourself and others, but that joy is not exclusive to them.

Picture the warm cosy feeling you will get knowing that when the time comes, you can sit in that rocking chair, sipping a margarita (or refreshment of your choice) and watching the sun set. Without care, without worry.

Perhaps the most important reason of all is that you can enjoy that feeling from now until you retire. In short, you earn the right to be as smug as you like.

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